Sabha is composed of representative of the people chosen by direct election
on the basis of adult suffrage. The maximum strength of the House
envisaged by the Constitution is 552, upto 530 members to represent the
States, up to 20 members to represent the Union Territories and not more
than two members of the Anglo-Indian Community to be nominated by the President,
if, in his opinion, that community is not adequately represented
in the House. The total elective membership is distributed among
the States in such a way that the ratio between the number of seats allotted
to each State and the population of the State is, so far as practicable,
the same for all States.
The number is divided among the 28 States and the 7 Union
Territories as follows:
(1) Andhra Pradesh-- 42
(2) Arunachal Pradesh --2
(3) Assam --14
(4) Bihar-- 40
(5) Chhattisgarh - 11
(6) Goa-- 2
(7) Gujarat-- 26
(8) Haryana-- 10
(9) Himachal Pradesh --4
(10) Jammu & Kashmir --6
(11) Jharkhand - 14
(12) Karnataka --28
(13) Kerala --20
(14) Madhya Pradesh --29
(15) Maharashtra --48
(16) Manipur --2
(17) Meghalaya --2
(18) Mizoram --1
(19) Nagaland --1
(20) Orissa --21
(21) Punjab --13
(22) Rajasthan --25
(23) Sikkim --1
(24) Tamil Nadu --39
(25) Tripura --2
(26) Uttar Pradesh --80
(27) Uttarakhand - 5
(28) West Bengal --42
(1) Andaman & Nicobar Islands --1
(2) Chandigarh --1
(3) Dadra & Nagar Haveli --1
(4) Daman & Diu --1
(5) Delhi --7
(6) Lakshadweep --1
(7) Pondicherry --1
Anglo-lndians (if nominated 2 by the President under
Article 331 of the Constitution)
The qualifying age for membership of Lok
Sabha is 25 years. The Lok Sabha at present consists of 545 members
including the Speaker and two nominated members.
Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues for five years from the date
appointed for its first meeting and the expiration of the period of five
years operates as dissolution of the House. However, while a Proclamation
of Emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament
by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time and not extending,
in any case, beyond a period of six months after the proclamation has ceased
Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950. The first general,
elections under the new Constitution were held during the year 1951-52
and the first elected Parliament came into being in April, 1952, the Second
Lok Sabha in April,1957, the Third Lok Sabha in April,1962, the Fourth
Lok Sabha in March, 1967, the Fifth Lok Sabha in March, 1971, the Sixth
Lok Sabha in March, 1977, the Seventh Lok Sabha in January,1980, the Eighth
Lok Sabha in December, 1984, the Ninth Lok Sabha in December, 1989, the Tenth Lok Sabha in June, 1991, the Eleventh Lok Sabha in May, 1996,
the Twelfth Lok Sabha in March, 1998, the
Thirteenth Lok Sabha in October, 1999, the Fourteenth Lok Sabha in May, 2004
and the Fifteenth Lok Sabha in May, 2009.
Sabha elects one of its own members as its Presiding Officer and he is
called the Speaker. He is assisted by the Deputy Speaker who is also elected
by Lok Sabha. The conduct of business in Lok Sabha is the responsibility
of the Speaker.
in the House
Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and Directions
issued by the Speaker from time to time thereunder regulate the procedure
in Lok Sabha.
items of business, notice of which is received from the Ministers/ Private
Members and admitted by the Speaker, are included in the daily List of
Business which is printed and circulated to members in advance.
various items of business to be taken up in the House the time is allotted
by the House on the recommendations of the Business Advisory Committee.
in session, Lok Sabha holds its sittings usually from 11 A.M. to 1 P.M.
and from 2 P.M. to 6 P.M. On some days the sittings are continuously held
without observing lunch break and are also extended beyond 6 P.M. depending
upon the business before the House. Lok Sabha does not ordinarily sit on
Saturdays and Sundays and other closed holidays.
of a Sittings
the time fixed for the commencement of a sitting the Marshal of the House
after ascertaining that 55 members are present in the House which number
including the Speaker is required to from the quorum, announces Hon'ble
Members, Hon'ble the Speaker
Speaker then reaches his seat from his Chamber and the members rise in
their seats. After bowing or doing namaskar with folded hands to
all sides of the House which is reciprocated by members bowing or folding
hands towards the Chair, the Speaker takes his seat. Thereafter the members
take their seats and the business of the House
the business entered in the order paper is taken up, a new member who has
not yet made and subscribed an oath or affirmation does so. In the case
of death of a sitting or an ex-member or a leading personality, obituary
references are made and this item is also taken up before Questions.
first hour of every sitting of Lok Sabha is called the Question hour. Asking
of questions in Parliament is the free and unfettered right of members.
It is during the Question hour that they may ask questions on different
aspects of administration and Government policy in the national as well
as international spheres. Every Minister whose turn it is to answer to
questions has to stand up and answer for his Ministry's acts of omission
are of three types - Starred, Unstarred and Short Notice. A Starred Question
is one to which a member desires an oral answer in the House and which
is distinguished by an asterisk mark. An unstarred Quesion is one which
is not called for oral answer in the house and on which no supplementary
questions can consequently be asked. An answer to such a question is given
in writing. Minimum period of notice for starred/ unstarred question is
10 clear days.
the questions given notice of are admitted by the Speaker, they are listed
and printed for answer on the dates allotted to the Ministries to which
the subject matter of the question pertains.
normal period of notice does not apply to Short Notice Questions which
relate to matters of urgent public importance. However, a Short Notice
Question may only be answered on short notice if so permitted by the Speaker
and the Minister concerned is prepared to answer it at shorter notice.
A Short Notice Question is taken up for answer immediately after the Question
after Question Hour
the Question Hour, the House takes up miscellaneous items of work before
proceeding to the main business of the day. These may consist of one or
more of the following:-
Motions, Questions involving breaches of Privileges, Papers to be laid
on the Table, Communication of any messages from Rajya Sabha, Intimations
regarding President's assent to Bills, Calling Attention Notices, Matters
under Rule 377, Presentation of Reports of Parliamentary Committee, Presentation
of Petitions, - miscellaneous statements by Ministers, Motions regarding
elections to Committees, Bills to be withdrawn or introduced.
main business of the day may be consideration of a Bill or financial business
or consideration of a resolution or a motion.
proposals in the form of a Bill can be brought forward either by a Minister
or by a private member. In the former case it is known as Government Bill
and in the latter case it is known as a Private Members' Bill. Every Bill
passes through three stages - called three readings - before it is passed.
To become law it must be passed by both the Houses of Parliament, Lok Sabha
and Rajya Sabha, an then assented to by the President.
presentation of the annual Budgets - General and Railways - their discussion
and voting on the various demands for grants followed by passing of Appropriation
Bill and Finance Bill, which is long drawn process, take up a major part
of the time of the House during its Budget Session every year.
the other kinds of business which come up before the House are resolutions
and motions. Resolutions and motions may be brought forward by Government
or by private members. Government may move a resolution or a motion for
obtaining the sanction to a scheme or opinion of the House on an important
matter of policy or on a grave situation. Similarly, a private member may
move a resolution or motion in order to draw the attention of the House
and of the Government to a particular problem.
last Two and Half hours of sitting on every Friday are generally allotted
for transaction of private members' business. While private members' bills
are taken up on one Friday, private members' resolutions are taken up on
the succeeding Friday, and so on.
Half-an-Hour Discussion can be raised on a matter of sufficient public
importance which has been the subject of a recent question in Lok Sabha
irrespective of the fact whether the question was answered orally or the
answer was laid on the Table of the House and the answer which needs elucidation
on a matter of fact. Normally not more than half an hour is allowed for
such a discussion.
half-an-hour discussion is listed on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays only,
In one session, a member is allowed to raise not more than two half-an-hour
the discussion, the member who has given notice makes a short statement
and not more than four members who have intimated earlier and have secured
one of the four places in the ballot are permitted to ask a question each
for further elucidating any matter of fact. Thereafter, the Minister concerned
replies. There is no formal motion before the House nor voting.
on Matters of Urgent Public Importance
may raise discussions on matters of urgent public importance with the permission
of the Speaker. Such discussions may take place on two days in a week.
formal motion is moved in the House nor is there any voting on such a discussion.
in the House
the member who initiates discussion on an item of business has spoken,
other members can speak on that item of business in such order as the Speaker
may call upon them. Only one member can speak at a time and all speeches
are directed to the Chair. A matter requiring the decision of the House
is decided by means of a question put by the Speaker on a motion made by
division is one of the forms in which the decision of the House is ascertained.
Normally, when a motion is put to the House members for and against it
indicate their opinion by saying "Aye" or "No" from their seats. The Chair
goes by the voices and declares that the motion is either accepted or negatived
by the House. If a member challenges the decision, the Chair orders that
the lobbies be cleared. Then the division bell is rung and an entire network
of bells installed in the various parts and rooms in Parliament House and
Parliament House Annexe rings continuously for three and a half minutes.
Members and Ministers rush to the Chamber from all sides. After the bell
stops, all the doors to the Chamber are closed and nobody can enter or
leave the Chamber till the division is over. Then the Chair puts the question
for second time and declares whether in its opinion the "Ayes" or the "Noes",
have it. If the opinion so declared is again challenged, the Chair asks
the votes to be recorded by operating the Automatic Vote Recording Equipment.
Vote Recording System
the announcement of the Speaker for recording the votes, the Secretary-
General presses the button of a key board. Then a gong sounds serving as
a singnal to membes for casting their votes. For casting a vote each member
present in the Chamber has to press a switch and then operate one of the
three push buttons fixed in his seat. The push switch must be kept pressed
simultaneously until the gong sounds for the second time after 10 seconds.
are two Indicator Boards installed in the wall on either side of the Speaker's
Chair in the Chamber. Each vote cast by a member is flashed here. Immediately
after the votes are cast, they are totalled mechanically and the details
of the results are flashed on the Result Indicator Boards installed in
the railings of the Speaker's and Diplomatic Galleries.
are normally held with the aid of the Automatic Vote Recording Equipment.
Where so directed by the Speaker in terms of relevant provision in the
Rules of Procedure etc. in Lok Sabha, Divisions may be held either by distribution
of 'Aye'/'No' and 'Abstention' slips to members in the House or by the
members recording their votes by going into the lobbies.
is an Indicator Board in the machine room showing the name of each member.
The result of Division and vote cast by each member with the aid of Automatic
Vote Recording Equipment appear on this Board also. Immediately a photograph
of the Indicator Board is taken. Later the Photograph is enlarged and the
names of members who voted 'Ayes' and for 'Noes' are determined with the
help of the photograph and incorporated in Lok Sabha Debates.
versions of Lok Sabha Debates are prepared viz., the Hindi version,
the English version and the Original version. Only the Hindi and English
versions are printed. The Original version, in cyclostyled form, is kept
in the Parliament Library for record and reference.
Hindi version comprises all Questions asked and Answers given thereto in
Hindi and the speeches made in Hindi as also verbatim Hindi translation
of Questions and Answers and of speeches made in English or in regional
English version contains Lok Sabha proceedings in English and the English
translation of the proceedings which take place in Hindi or in any regional
Original version, however, contains proceedings in Hindi or in English
as they actually take place in the House and also the English/Hindi translation
of speeches made in regional languages.