SHRI SUDHIR SAWANT: The financial relations are very vital in Centre State relations in a federal structure. Article 28 provides that the Centre can give grants for any purpose to anyone. The farmers of the Constitution have deliberately left the word 'aid out of that, the Centre will give grants only to States. I have brought this point for one reason. If because of the rising demand for Development Boards giving rise to regional aspirations within a State, that is, the regional imbalances within a State-for example in Maharashtra the Konkan areas got out of thepicture in irrigation till 2000 A.D.
Therefore, my question is: What action is the Government taking to remove the regional imbalances within a State in devolution of the power and whether this is in the agenda of the Sub Committee of the Inter-State Council?
SHRI S.B. CHAVAN: Where the Government talks of regional
imbalances it is not the State regions, but a number of States taken together. So, I mean, the Southern Zone, Western Zone, Eastern Zone and Northern Zone. That is the kind of definition that the Government of India has in view and if it is an internal matter of any State Government, of internal imbalance of development, it is entirely for the State Government to
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tackle the issue, the Government of India has nothing to do with it.
SHRI RABI RAY: Mr. Speaker, Sir, with your permission, I would like to ask the hon.Union Home Minister, whether he admits that there has been a delay in it? It is a very important recommendation before the House. I would like to draw the attention of th'House towards the Sarkaria Commissions Report. I do admit that it is not a revolutionary document, but certainly it is a liberal document. I would like to know from Shri Chavan, whether it is true that the Sarkaria Commission has given a very concrete recommendation with regard to the position of the State Governors-that the Governor should be a nonpolitical persons nominated by Centre, after porior consultations with the State Chief Minister. I am pinpointing to this particular recommendation because in the past, during Jawaharlal Nehru's time, the Centre used to nominate the Governor, after holding discussionswith the Chief Ministers concerned. Through you, I would like to know, whether the Government has taken a clear stand, with regard to this recommendation? Is the Government prepared to acceptthis recommendation is toto and declare that hence froth, only non- political persons would be nominated, after prior consultations with the Chief Ministers? I want a clear cut reply from the hon. Minister in this regard?
SHRI S.B. CHAVAN: No recommendation can be considered in
isolation. All the recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission will be considered together and I cannot possibly at this stage ...
SHRI RABI RAY: Mr. Speaker, Sir, I had asked this question
because there has been
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precedents. During the Nehru are didn't the centre used to elicit the opinion of Chief Ministers like G.B. Pant, B.C. Roy, ari Krishna Mehtab etc, before appointing Governors to their States? It is a valid question.
SHRI S.B. CHAVAN: I am going to give a concrete reply to your concrete question that all recommendations will have to be considered together. For, one recommendation may be importantfor you and another for somebody else. All these recommendations will be considered and placed before the Inter-State Council and the total view of the Council will be taken into a account. Even now, necessary consultations with regard to the appointment of Governors, are done.
144.SHRI NAWAL KISHORE RAI: Will the Minister of AGRICULTURE be pleased to state:
(a) whether the Government have compiled a list of organic farmers;
(b) If so, the details thereof;
(c) whether the Government propose to promote agriculture on the basis of Low Input Sustainable Agriculture in view of high costs of agro-chemicals and other ill-effects both to environment and ecology; (d) If so, the details thereof;
(e) whether the Government propose to make Research and Development investments to promote organic farming in the country; and (f) if so, the details thereof?
THE MINISTER OF STATE IN THE
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MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE (SHRI MULLAPALLY RAMACHANDRAN): (a) No, Sir.
(b)Does not arise.
(c)and (d). The present average National consumption of about 71 kgs. chemical nutrientsper ha. is quite low ascompared to various other countries. This level of fertiliser consumption is not considered to be injurious to environment and ecology. The Government promotes the integrated and balanced use of fertiliserso that organic and inorganic sources of nutrients are available for improved soil fertility.
(e) and (f). Government is implementing through the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, coordinated projects in a number of States, on recycling offarm and city wastes as sources of nutrients.
Use of green manures is also being popularised. These along, however, do not meet the requirement of high yielding varieties of crops. Hence all possible sources of nutrients including chemical fertilisers are propagated.
SHRI NAWAL KISHORE RAI: Mr. Speaker, Sir, the hon. Minister has responded to my question, but I believe that whenever questions pertaining to organic Agriculture are asked, such readymade answers are given by the Agriculture Ministry. Through you, I would like to know from the hon. Minister whether as a result of the ill-effects of chemical fertilisers on environment and health, the Government has taken any steps to check the use of chemical fertilisers and to provide organic fertilisers? Further, does the Government propose to increase the subsidy which has been reduced in view of the costs.
THE MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE (SHRI BALRAM JAKHAR): Mr. Speaker, 34 Oral Answers
Sir, the hon. Member knows very well that every aspect is taken into consideration in agriculture viz the production aspect, the fertility of the land, its maintenance, its necessity and present fertiliser usage etc. Our per hectare requirement of fertiliser is only 71 kilograms, much lesser than that of Bangladesh. 85 percent of our farmers still use manure and also Rural compost or green manure, but still we find it difficult to meet their demands. I will read out the figures for you.
In Rural Compost, nitrogen content is 0.75 per cent, potash is 0.5 per cent and phosphate is 0.5 per cent; in Urban Compost, nitrogen is 1 percent; potash is 1 per cent and phosphate is 1 per cent; in Neem cake, nitrogen is 5.20 per cent, potash is 1 per cent and phosphate is 1.4 per cent and in F.Y.M., nitrogen 0.6 percent, potash is 0.2 per cent and phosphate is 0.6 per cent.
Therefore, it is necessary to take these factors into consideration and we have established 16 such Research Institute, where such fertilisers are made available and we have earmarked Rs.500 crore, for this purpose.
In regard to the small and medium farmers the State Governments have been directed to evolve methods to increase the production and to prepare compost orgreen manure because chemical fertilizers also cause pests and create diseases in plants. Therefore these factors are also taken into consideration.
SHRI NAWAL KISHORE RAI: I am not satisfied with the reply given by the hon. Minister in regard to compost and green manure. The same reply is repeated again and again. The statement of the present 35 Oral Answers
minister is the repetition of what the previous minister of Agriculture had said. I would like to know what measures have been taken or are likely to be taken in regard to the production of green manure an compost. I would also like to know the results of the measures taken in the recent past.Besides,what were the effects of propagating compost for agricultural purpose. No reply has been given to it.
So far as my second supplementary question regarding the proposed preparation of 'Neem' seed based agricultural pesticide is concerned, it is being prepared well in other countries of the world. Is the Ministry of Agriculture thinking seriously to prepare neem seed based pesticides, if so, I would like to know the details thereof....
MR. SPEAKER: If the question is too long it would be difficult to reply.
SHRI NAWAL KISHORE RAI: I would like to know whether the Ministry of Agriculture proposes to convene an International conference on neem seed based pesticides? If so, the time by which, it would be convened?
SHRI BALRAM JAKHAR: The hon. Member also knows that neem was grown first in India. So how is it possible that India may remain ignorant of neem qualities which are known to the outside world. We also know these qualities and it is being used in the form of insecticides too. It is being used as fertilizer,'Datoon' and medicines too. Our forefathers prescribed it as the best medicine in Ayurved, and thus we are the leaders in this field. The other countries have followed th teachnings of our foretathers.We will let you know later on about the effects of all these things because it may take some time in arriving at the conclusions.
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SHRI ANIT BASU: He is avoiding the whole answer. He is not
telling how neem seed is used for production of pesticides.
SHRI NAWAL KISHORE RAI: I wanted to know the measures already taken and proposed to be taken regarding the use of neem seed forproduction of pesticides. The hon. Minister has given no reply to it.
SHRI TEJ SINGH RAO BHONSLE: Mr. Speaker, Sir, through you, I wold like to know that keeping in view the non-avilability of cow dung, whether the Government propose to prepare organic manure with the waste that gets accumulated in big cities like Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta etc. Has the Government of India issued a list to every State and if so, the target fixed for each State and whether it may meet the requirements of the country?
SHRI BALRAM JAKHAR: It is absolutely correct. We are taking measures but the expenditure on the preparation of compost is comparatively high, andwe are trying to lessen it.
SHRI SOBHANADREESWARA RAO VADDE:Mr. Speaker, Sir, I answer to part (e) and (f), it is stated that the Government is interested in recycling of farm and city wastes as source of nutrients. I would like to draw the attention of the hon. Minister that sufficient funds are not made available for this purpose. The city people especially Municipal Corporation people think of only disposal. they do not care about further utilisation of wastes as manure. For that, the 37 Oral Answers
coordination is required between your Ministry and the Urban Development Ministry.
I would like to know from the hon. Minister whether he has come across a newsitem where a cane grower in Shimoga district in karnataka State is utilising sugarcane leaves.
Shri Sobhanadreeswara Rao Vadde Ctd He is utilising the sugar cane leaves which are left out, after cleaning that cane. He is utilising the sugar can leaves by application of some superphosphate and limestone. It is yielding very good results to the farmera.
MR. SPEAKER: Please come out with the question.
SHRI SOBHANADREESWARA RAO: In view of the fact that very good result has been obtained there, I would like to know whether his Ministry will take suitable steps in coordination with the Minister of Information and Broadcasting so that large publicity will be given to the farmers to utilise all these very huge quantity of sugarcane leaves which are otherwise burnt and wasted into the atmosphere. They can be utilised as manure.
SHRI BALRAM JAKHAR: We are always doing it and about the rural waste, the State Governments are also advised to tap all organic waste to step up the production.
SHRI OSCAR FERNANDES: It has been steed in the answer that about 71 Kg of chemical nutrients per hectare are being used in the country.
I would liketo knowfrom the hon. Minister what is the quantity of nutrients used in Punjab vis-a-vis, State of Assam and what arethe remedial measures we are going to take.
MR. SPEAKER: It is on organic manure.
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SHRI OSCAR FERNANDES:The same thing.It is only from the answer that I am reading. In Assam, the organic manure is being used but chemical fertiliser is not being used and to increase production, we have definitely to take measures. In Punjab, we havethe highest yield today. The area under cultivation in Assam is much more but the yield is less. What are the measures that the Government is contemplating to take to increase food production in Assam.
SHRI BALRAM JAKHAR: Punjab is using 168 kg per hectare and Assam is 11. It is only nowthat we have come to 11. It was really about 7 earlierto that. It is rightthat we have some sort of stabilisation whereby something is good both ways organic as well as inorganic to enhance the productivity of the soil which is very essential.
SHRI GUMAN MAL LODHA: Mr. Speaker, Sir, the hon. Minister in his reply has pointed out that 37 pesticides out of the total pesticides to chemical fertilizers are poisonous. The hon. Minister rightly pointed out that neem seed was being used to overcome such difficulties. In view of this I would like to submit to the hon.
Minister that the ratio of organic and inorganic fertilizer is 1:20, and the price of organic fertiliser is lowerthan that of chemical fertilisers. Keeping these factors in view will the cttle wealth inthe country be utilised? Just as Shrimati Indira Gandhi had written a letter that animal slaughter particularly cow-slaughter should be stopped in States and organic fertilizers should be produced? Will the Government take measuresto closethe slaughter houses particularly in Devnar and Akalovir?
MR. SPEAKER: This does not come out of this question.
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MR. SPEAKER: You are being watched by the country.
SHRI CHANDULAL CHANDRAKAR: Mr. Speaker, Sir, the hon. Minister of Agriculture is a good farmer. A water like liquid called X slurry, that comes out of gobar-gas makes the land more fertile. It has more qualities in comparison to any other fertilisers manufactured by factories. If bio-gas plants are set up in this way in every village, there would be no need to import urea from other countries. Similarly, the hon. Minister knows the utility of green manure too. Will the Government make a wide publicity of its utility as well as the process of its preparation in rural areas?
SHRI BALRAM JAKHAR: Mr. Speaker, Sir, I fully agree with Shri Chandulal Chandrakar. Every effort is being made to set up bio- gasplants but within the fixed target. The system will be improved gradually.
SHRI V. DHANANJAYA KUMAR: Sir, we have got a lengthy speech from the hon. Minister.
MR. SPEAKER: The time for you is very limited. If you do not ask the question directly, then, you will not get a reply.
SHRI V. DHANANJAYA KUMAR: Regarding the usage of organic manure and recycling offarm wastes, I would like to know from the hon.
Minister whether any research is made in this regard which farm waste is useful and which of the produce. We have got the husk of paddy; we have got the husk of coffee and we have got many otherwastes. We have also got the cow-dung. It is available. I would like to know from the hon.
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Minister as to whether any assessment is made what is the quantity of organic manure available in this country; whether it would match the need for the form produce.
SHRI BALRAM JAKHAR: We have got 650 million tonnes of organic manure from the rural sector and about 16 million tonnes from the urban sector. We also try to see that all the leaves and everything can be made a compost. there is no problem.-----