nںɮ n ʴvx < i E xi E

Part-III of the Constitution is a Fundamental Right, then wherefrom did the Supreme Court get this authority to declare this particular clause as an enabling provision?

+{E ɱڨ , +{ Zɺ Vn Vxi E <E nֹ{ʮhɨ E i *

<E {ɽ nֹ{ʮhɨ E +, ɽ ix Sɽi * BE |i E i xɽ Ei, ɦ |i E V ɮEɮ x |Ҩ E] E < ɱ E n V EɪǴɽ ְ E , =ɺ J nʱi + +nɺ ESʮ E VҴx nڦɮ Mɪ * <E BE U] =nɽh {Vɤ nx Sɽi * ɽ Z BE E ʨɱ * =ɨ ʱJ + E {Vɤ |Ҩ E] E {ɽ ɱ E +iMi V M |ɨ] B l, |Ҩ E] E ]] ɱ E iɽi ɽ E ɮEɮ x =xE ʮ] E n * ɨZ Ei E xɪ{ʱE E VVɨ] E Eɪxi Ex V ɮEɮ E Eɨ , Ex =E BE n i * < E ɽ ʱJ + E Vix +iɮɱ E ʱB |Ҩ E] E {ɽ ɱ Exx E iʤE nʱi + +nɺ ESɮ |ɨ] E = {n {ɮ , + =xE ʮ] EE =xɺ = {S-U& ɱ E +v E ɮ E] V * n {ɽ ɮ x B nJ E BE iɮ ʴvx E vɨ Eɨ Ei , j V ɹh ni E < ɨV E, < M E =ilx Ex E ʱB ɤ EU Ex E iɮ , nںɮ iɮ xɪ |hɱ E xɨ ɽi iV U֮ E l ɮ Mnx E] V * +{E {ɺ <E E ɨvx ? +{x E E ix nx E Eƣƺ ֱBM* <ɨ E< nEEi xɽ, j V +{E +i r Ei , +{E ʴSɮ ɮ l Ei , Ex +{ B j xɽ V < ʴɹɪ E bұ Ei * ɽ ʴɹɪ ix ʴɦM ] + *

ɤɺ {ɽ ʴɦM ɨVE xɪ Bɨ +vEʮi jɱɪ , VɺE ɹ]{i V x ɽ Eɨ { * =E ɮ Vix lc E VB, =ix +SU * {U nx E< M x ɽ i |E] i {ɮ E * E Ei E j E >{ɮ E +I{ xɽ Ei , Ex Vɺ fM {U n ɱ 13 ɽx < jɱɪ E Sɱx + , =E ʱB ii {I E E< n {ɺ +B + E E ɤ ɽ +bE E V |iɨ =xE niɮ M l, =xx +i E n E < Eɮ ɽ E* ɨZi E B {ɮ{ɮ ɮ n E E xɽ * M x ɤ ɽ +bE E iɤn x< l + ɮi ɮEɮ E iɮ EҤ 200 Ec {B E |VE] Vڮ B l* b. ɤ ɽ Ҩɮɴ +bE =bx xɨ BE ƺl Sɱ l* =E ʱB ɽi ɱ B l, + ɨɪ E , ʡ E =xE ɮ VF EM* = =bx ɦ +vEʮ E xEɱ n Mɪ, VɤE =E S]Ǯ ʱJ + E Vɽ iE |ɪɺ M <E V Sɴ M,

he should be either from the Scheduled Caste or from the Scheduled Tribe.

ɽ b] E ɺɱ , ʡ E < i>M, Mɮ ɤɺ c xEx iǨx j V E i B +* <ɨ n q * BE i ɱ E V] +nɺ + +xֺSi Vi E SSɪ E ʱB 250 Ec {B J Vi , Ex 1998 + 1999 E V] < { E JS xɽ E Mɪ, Vɺɺ ɽ { { Mɪ* nںɮ i ɽ E n E ɡ< ESɮ V +{ɨxVxE vv Ei + <xɺx E ɱɨj +{x ʺɮ {ɮ fi , =xE Ei E ʱB 90 Ec {B ɱ V] J Vi , iE =xE SS {g-ʱJE +{x VҴx E vɮx E ʱB E< +SU Eɨ Ex Sɽ i < { E vɨ E Ei , <ʱB ɽ V] J Vi *

ɽ 90 Ec {ɪ 1998 + 1999 JS xɽ E Mɪ + = { E ʤʱɪ E ʱB, Eii E ʱB, U{Eʱɪ E ʱB, xn E ʱB, ɱ+ E ʱB b<] E n Mɪ*

... (ɴvx)

b, ɽ ɮ ʮEb , +{E {i Sɱ VBM* < i E ɽi nJ + Si l, +{ V ɽx xi E l Vɤ ɽ jɱɪ +BM, i <ɨ EU r EM + |Mi EM*

nںɮ q +ɮIh xi E * +ɮIh xi E Sɱx b{]Ǩ] +ɡ {ɺx Ei * Vɽ iE ʮVɴx E ɴɱ , ɹ]{i ɽn uɮ ɮi ɮEɮ E BEx +ɡ ʤVx Ƥvi +n ʱJ , +xֺSi Viɪ + VxViɪ E ʮVɴb ɴV E Sɱx ʨxɺ] +ɡ ʶɪɱ ɡɮ EM* +{ {S ɱ BE ɮ +ɪM n ɱ +ɪM + +{ n ɱ ʱB +B, i n ɱ E n +{E nx M* +{E ix Sɽi E +ɮIh E xɨ Vxi nʱi + +nɺ M , =xE Ph nJ V * c--c +vEɮ Sɽ ɽ nʱi +nɺ, Vɤ ɽ F]ʮB Vi , i c Vi E M = {ɮ =Mɱ =`i + Ph nJi * + i |Ҩ E] E >{ɮ <E +ɮ Mɪ * +{E ɱڨ , |Ҩ E] x + BE ɱ n * V {ɮ <] BVEx , Vɺɨ bE], <Vxɪɮ, {, <VɽV <Vxɪɮ +i , <xɨ BɨҶx +ɮIh xn* <E |Ҩ E] x {ɮ {ʶɪʱ] ] n *

ɦ{i ɽn, +{ nIh +i , nIh BE ɽi c vxv Sɱ + ɽ vxv - bE EɱVV E* bE EɱVV +{x |iɤxv M n E ʮVɴx Bbʨɶx xɽ nM, Ex |Ҩ E] uɮ BE |ɴvx E n E EɱVV 15 50 |iɶi iE +{ NRI E SS E Ei + E< EʱʡEx xɽ * Ex _ {ɮ bɱɮ _ {ɮ {=xb ]ʱM Ei * +{ ʴn E BE SS E Bbʨɶx n Ei , VɺE E< EʱʡEx xɽ , ʮ] xɽ , Ex n E vɮi {ɮ Vx SS J i , xM i , =E Bbʨɶx xɽ ʨɱM* ɽ ʴbx * V`ɱx V, +{ EU EʮB, EE +{ <x ʮE E Jڤ ɨZi *

iҺɮ q b{]Ǩ] +ɡ {ɺx Bb ]xM E * < ʴɦM E Eɱ Ex]ʱM +lʮ] x n Mɪ * |vx j V < ʴɦM E j * Jֶ x SʽB l, |vx j Vɺ ɽE E Jn j , = ɽE E x]ʮM ʶqi M + V M* V ɮEɮ xɪx ]] ɮi ɮEɮ E Jn E +{x EɪDZɪ {ʤE E] +xb]EM , Vɺ ʴɦM E |vx j b , = ʺli i {ڮ n E +xn BE ɽ Vx SʽB E E< < {ɮ EɪǴɽ xɽ EM, i =E Jɱɡ Ji EɮǴ< M* Mɮ nJ < i E E b{]Ǩ] +ɡ {ɺx Bb ]xM x <x M E ʶEɮ xɪ * BE xɽ, n xɽ, Vxɴɮ 1997 +Mɺi, 1997 iE {S B +ʡʶɪɱ b { xEɱ, V ʴɦM |vx j V E +xiMi * BE-BE +ʡʶɪɱ b E E ɮ n E EҶx ɮ bֱb Eɺ] Bb bֱb ]< x BE-BE j E nV E J]J]ɪ, |vx j V E {ɺ MB, Ex ɤɺ BE Vɴɤ ʨɱ E E E, ɽ i |Ҩ E] E xhǪ =i{xx + *

ʡ BE ɽi c ʶɹ] b E |vx j V E xɴɺ {ɮ Mɪ* Vɺɨ +nhҪ ɱɪM V, ɨ ʴɱɺ {ɺɴx V, P|ɪ Miɨ V + ʮ{ʤEx {] ʽi ɦ n E b l* |vx j V E x E E ɽ ɤ EU |Ҩ-E] E l +{ i g, V ڮF uɮ EB Mɪ EV =xE {ɺ VB* Ex |vx j V x ɮ i E xx E VB ... (ɴvx)

MR. CHAIRMAN : Shri Buta Singh, your time is up.

] ʺƽ (Vɱ): BE ʨx] ɱi xɽ M* +{ Vxi E E iɮ 12 E ɦ < < {ɮ nx E {ɮx E ɨx Ex {c l* xɽ Sɽi E + {ɮx * +{x BE SxiE +n Ex Sɽi + =n Ei E {V ɤ ɽ +bE V ɪn ɹ]{i ɽi Mv V x E l =E l Jɱɴc x * +Mɮ B x E Mɪ i E< xM xɽ nx Sɽi Ex Sxɴ E nx {ڮ n Pڨ + E Ei E n E BEi E ʱB Vix Eɨ nʱi + +nɺ E Ei =ix E< xɽ E Ei* <ʱB +{ =xE {U i vEʱɪ* =xE VnM +V {ɶ+ niɮ * <ʱB +Mɮ +{x =xE ʨɱ ʱE +vEɮ E +xʱM |ʴVx E xɨ {ɮ ʴvx xEɱ n i n E +n <ix c iڡx {n M VɺE ɽ ɮEɮ E xɽ {ɪM* <ʱB <x q {ɮ +{ ɹ]Ҫ iɮ {ɮ {ڮ vx n* +Mɮ +{ Eƣ ֱBM i =ɨ +ɪM, Ex =ɺ {ɽ ɽ ]ű BE] VɺE |ɰ{ +{E Eʤx] E {ɺ =E ɽ < + {ɺ E<* EE +V iE +ɮIh xi E Sɱx Eɱ ɮEɮ +vn i * <x 50 ɱ ڮF E +bǮ ɮ VnM E l E Ei ɽ +{E ɨx * = Exx E x bڱb < + <{Ҩ] Ex E ʱB Jɺ EE B..B.]. E ʮVɴx {ʱɺ {ɮ BE ij +lʮ] E M`x E VB* iɦ ɨZM E EU E Mɪ *

nںɮ, ɮ EҶx bڱb Eɺ] + bڱb ]<V E +]E 338(9) ʱJ E E< +lʮ] , |Ҩ E] E x , Vɤ iE +ɮIh xi {ɮ EҶx E niJi xɽ Vi iɤ iE =ɨ iɤnұ xɽ Ei* <ʱB EҶx E {ɴɮ nVB, iE EҶx < n < xi E +ɱ Ex nn E E* Vx +ʡʶɪɱ b E x VF E =xE i֮i {ɺ ʱɪ VB* +Mɮ n E xɪ{ʱE+ +ɮIh M E n VB + ɮ VV |Ҩ E] + <-E] ` i Z {ڮ ɮ E =xE ={ʺli c +SU iɴɮh ɽ xM + V xɪ{ʱE +V ɮ l Jɱɴc E ɽ xɽ EM*

xɪ{ʱE + +ɨ + iE +ɮIh M xɽ + * nx E ɨx Ex Sɽi E 1997 {ɽ VҴ Mv V x +]E 60(4) B E ʨɱ EE ɮ nʱi + +nɺ < E E ʱB +ɮIh n l* =ɺ {ɽ Ҩi <n Mv V x B.. E ʱB E{x] {x + B.]. E ʱB ]<ɱ ɤ-{x xɪ l* Ex +V =E E< VF xɽ xi * EO E Eڨi Vx E n =x {x {ɮ ʨ^ bɱ n Mɪ* E< jɱɪ ʴɦM B xɽ V +V bڱb Eɺ] E {x E{x] {x {ɮ vx ni ]<ɱ E ɤ-{x {ɮ vx ni , ]<ɱ E ɤ-{x {ɮ vx ni * Ҩi <xn Mv E 20 j EɪF, 15 j EɪF Ji: < E ʱɪ l E x Eɱ nʱi M, +nɺ + n E ɮEɮ ESɮ ʱE V nںɮ vv, =tM , ɴɺɪ , Ji-c M , =x ɤ =xE E ʨɱ* Ҩi <xn Mv x < n E ʱɪ E, <ʱɪ =x {x: M E Vɪ*

ɦ{i ɽn, ɽ xi E n E IhE ƺl+ ɽ +ɮIh ʤɱEֱ M xɽ * ʴɶʴtɱɪ +xnx +ɪM, B.+<..].B., +<..,B.+ɮ., .B.+<. +ɮ., b.+ɮ.b.+. +n +ɮIh xɽ * ɽ iE E xɴʺ]V < Sƺɱɮ iɮ {ɮ xɽ * , + E xɴʺ] BE < Sƺɱɮ M Ex V<x xɽ E * Sɽi E ʴvɴi i {ɮ IhE ƺl+ {ڮ +ɮIh * <ɨ ɤɺ c i E bW E * <ɨ V ɦ E ʨɱ E Vɪ EE ɽ ɽ +ɮIh xɽ * V E ʴvx {ʮn xɽ * {Sɪi , xʺ{ɱ E]V Ex V ɦ xɽ * <ɨ ɪ Vɪ*

BE xxҪ n: j-{ʮn E Vɪ*

] ʺƽ: j-{ʮn i B M E ɮ ʱɪ Mɪ V <Ex ɮ ɨx ɮ Mɪ iE Jx-{ڮ E* J, < i E Jֶ E B E Mɪ * V`ɱx V xɩ xɴnx E ɮ ɽɪi E* n <xE V Iɨ Eұ ʨɱ Vɪ i xi E ɮ Eh Ei ɮx V +{x ɱ {xM E xɨ ʱɪ, ɽ ɽi JiɮxE i * +{ ڱE +nʺɪ + nʱi E ʱɪ <iɱ x E EE Vɤ M E ʱɪ ɱ xɽ i {xM E M* ɮ {ɺ i Jx E ʱɪ xɽ , Pɮ +xV xɽ , ɱ E ɪM* <ʱɪ nx l VcE +{ɺ |lx E E ɱ {xM xɽ E Ei, ɱ {xM xɽ Ei* ɮ l, {ƴ + ɽ iE E nnM iE VEc ֪ * ɮ >{ɮ ɱ {xM E i i <*

ɦ{i ɽn, +{E +ɦɮ E +{x Z +{x i Ex E E n* x E VxiE ɦ =`x E Eʶɶ xɽ E Mɮ ɽ i EM E

Let it be the last thing.

+{ɺ Vn Ex EE ʴn E<-E< xɨ {Eɮ Vi Vɺɺ ɮ n nJ i * <ʱɪ Sɽi E ɤ ɽ b. +bE x V {ɽSx M E n , ɽ {ɽSx x , ɽ <VVi ɮ n x * ɱ {xM xɽ Sɽi EE =ɺ <VVi xɽ ʨɱM*

SHRI PRIYA RANJAN DASMUNSI (RAIGANJ) : Sir, I requested the hon. Speaker that though the time is fixed, many hon. Members expressed the view that they should not be restrained while speaking on the Bill regarding reservation for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and each one can express their view. I appeal to you that if the time is extended it will be good.

MR. CHAIRMAN : Shri Dasmunsi, you were not here. The hon. Minister has agreed to convene a separate three-day conference regarding all those issues.

SHRI PRIYA RANJAN DASMUNSI : Sir, all Parties have agreed on this matter.

MR. CHAIRMAN : That is why we have extended the time by one hour.

Shrimati Suguna Kumari to speak now.

... (Interruptions)

MR. CHAIRMAN : She is a new Member. Please cooperate.

DR. (SHRIMATI) C. SUGUNA KUMARI (PEDDAPALLI) : Thank you Mr. Chairman for giving me this opportunity.

Today the discussion is going on the subject whether reservations in the Lok Sabha and the Assemblies for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes should be extended by ten years or not. The senior Member, hon. Shri Buta Singh has given his valuable opinion. India is a vast country with diversified religions, languages and castes. Large sections of population suffer from many historical disabilities. The weaker sections in the society are women, Shudras, Dalits, Muslims and Adivasis. The term 'Scheduled Caste' was first used in the Government of India Act, 1935. It meant mainly untouchable groups who were formerly called depressed classes. In 1991, out of a total population of 816 million in India, 136.6 million or 16.74 per cent were the Scheduled Castes and 64.9 million or 8 per cent were the Scheduled Tribes.

Of all the States, Punjab has the highest population of the Scheduled Castes. It is 28.3 per cent. The lowest population of the Scheduled Castes is in Gujarat. It is 7.4 per cent. The Scheduled Caste population is negligible in the North-Eastern States and no caste is scheduled in Nagaland. More than 80 per cent of the Scheduled Caste live in rural areas. The literacy rate among them is low as compared to the national average and only one-third of the Scheduled Caste children of school-going age attend schools.

The population of the Scheduled Tribes is the highest in Madhya Pradesh. It is 23.3 per cent which is nearly one-fourth of the Scheduled Tribe population. The least population of the Scheduled Tribes is in Uttar Pradesh. It is 0.2 per cent. Ninety three per cent of the Scheduled Tribe population live in rural areas. Most of it is in exclusive tribal tracts, hilly and forest areas which are remote and not easily accessible. The literacy rate among them is extremely low. It is only 15 per cent and only one-fifth of the children of the age 5 to 14 years attend schools.

The scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes have been subjected to discrimination and have been denied opportunities for centuries as a result of which they became backward, economically, socially and politically. For the advancement of historically depressed and socially backward sections of society, in 1932, reservation was given to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and it was provided in all educational institutions supported by the State. In employment at federal and State level, reservation was provided at the time of selection and confirmation.


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